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I have read several articles of off-chain definition and come to know that they are use for scale the ethereum blockchain. but my question is what is actually mean by off-chain word in ethereum blockchain? can i use geth as a off-chain for DApp? how i start to implement off-chain in DApp project? or off-chain means any local database? i am totally confused and gone through many articles in last three days. please help me to find out this answers and it will really helpful your suggestion to me.

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I think it's a matter of terminology, so it is probably subjected to interpretation.

When I say off-chain, I refer to the operation of calling a contract function NOT from another contract function, but from a web3-based script or application which communicates with a node on the Ethereum blockchain network.

This operation can be either one of the following:

  1. A remote procedure call (RPC), which does not change anything on the blockchain, and therefore does not require signing it
  2. A transaction, which does change some data the blockchain, and therefore does require signing it
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