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I have a contract with a function in which only if a certain condition is true, it changes the state of the blockchain otherwise it emits an event and returns:

address[] public global_state;
function test() public payable returns (bool) {
    if (condition on global_state) {
        emit Event();
        return false;
    }
    // change the state
    global_state.push(address("0x0"))
    return true
}  

If I understand it correctly, I don't need a transaction if the condition is true and a simple call will do the job.

But when I call the function from web3py I don't know the state of the condition. I was wondering if there is a way to understand it before and make the correct call with web3py because for the transaction I need to wait but for the call, I don't.

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Emitting an event is also modifying operation, because events are recorded in blocks. Though, if you don't need event to be visible to others, you may do the following:

  1. Invoke function locally via call
  2. Check returned value
  3. In case returned value is true, invoke function in transaction via send

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