11

In a simple solidity contract, without inheritance, storage variables get assigned sequentially starting from slot 0.

But in case of inheritance, the inherited variables appear before or afterwards?

2 Answers 2

14

The assignment is as follows: first to the inherited variables, from the leftmost contract to the rightmost, finishing with the current contract you're in.

In the following example C inherits from Base and Base2, in that order. The slot assignment will start from Base, following Base2, and finally C.

pragma solidity ^0.5;

contract Base {
    uint256 basevar = 0;
    constructor() public {
        basevar = 1;
    }
}

contract Base2 {
    uint256 basevar2 = 2;
    constructor() public {
        basevar2 = 1;
    }
}

contract C is Base, Base2 {
    uint256 cvar = 0;

    function getCvar() public view returns(uint256) {
        return cvar;
    }

    function getBasevar () public view returns(uint256) {
        return basevar;
    }

}

basevar gets assigned slot 0, basevar2 gets assigned slot 1, and cvar gets assigned slot 2.

2
  • 2
    Can you link reference?
    – Benny
    Oct 12, 2022 at 4:43
  • 2
    @benoit the docs say "For contracts that use inheritance, the ordering of state variables is determined by the C3-linearized order of contracts starting with the most base-ward contract" docs.soliditylang.org/en/v0.8.14/internals/…
    – BonisTech
    Oct 18, 2022 at 9:06
3

I had done some extensive testing so I wanted to add another answer to clarify things.

Simple Example:

contract A is B, C, D {}

The Storage will be arranged like this:

Storage B;
Storage C;
Storage D;
Storage A;

Now, if you want to Add E to your already written contract (And not cause memory collisions), this is how you go about doing it.

NOTE: A2 should be an empty contract, so it takes no slots. (Just in case), and thus can be ignored as it will have no storage.

Contract A2 is A, E { }

The storage will be arranged like this:

Storage B;
Storage C;
Storage D;
Storage A;
Storage E;

This will make it safe to upgrade.

If you do it the opposite way:

Contract A2 is E, A { }

E will be set on the top, and you will mess up the order of your storage slots.

Storage E;
Storage B;
Storage C;
Storage D;
Storage A;

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