I'm looking for information on how Solidity works on the low level and how exactly it gets executed or run on the EVM?
Do you have any documentation or Papers that describe that? Thank you!
As Briomkez already wrote, Solidity is not directly executed. It is compiled to EVM bytecode. This is specified in the yellow paper.
There is also a more readable version of it - BeigePaper (see "Is there a readable (less formal) version of Ethereum Yellow Paper?")
For viewing the bytecode and stepping through it, you can use the Remix Web IDE.
A whole chapter about EVM in this great book:
Im pretty sure that if you need anything else might be there