1

With this, bool p does not update,

contract b {

        bool p;

    mapping(uint => bool) public t;

    function setValue() {
        bool b = t[1];
        b = true;
    }
    function checkValue() returns (bool) {
        return t[1];
    }
}

but with this, it does, why?

contract b {

    struct Info {
        bool p;

    }
    mapping(uint => Info) public t;

    function setValue() {
        Info b = t[1];
        b.p = true;
    }
    function checkValue() returns (bool) {
        return t[1].p;
    }
}
  • It's an unfortunate aspect of the Solidity language. Info b = t[1]; is implicitly the same as Info storage b = t[1];, so b is actually a pointer to the struct in storage. – Jesse Busman Dec 30 '18 at 14:45
2

The difference is that bool is a value type while struct is a reference type.

You can read more about the types in the Solidity documentation: https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.24/types.html#reference-types

1

In your first snippet, your line bool b = t[1]; is retrieving a copy of t[1], because t[1] is a boolean primitive. It assigns it to a local variable b. Modifying b has no consequence on the values stored in t.

In your second snippet, your line Info b = t[1]; retrieves a reference to t[1], because t[1] is a structure. The reference is assigns to b, and writing to b.[field] effectively modifies the fields of the structure.

The difference between value type and reference type is fundamental in computer languages, I suggest you read more about it here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_type_and_reference_type

1

Solidity has the concept of reference types and there are several of them such as dynamic arrays, fixed arrays, mappings and structs. You can read more about that here: https://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.24/types.html

A struct is like a class of sorts where we have to create a new instance of it to use it.

This struct will have a couple of different fields that will describe its purpose for example:

contract Crowdfunding {
    struct Request {
       string description;
       uint value;
       address recipient;
       bool complete;
     }
}

Now a struct behaves differently than variables do, for example:

contract Crowdfunding {
    struct Request {
       string description;
       uint value;
       address recipient;
       bool complete;
     }

    address public manager;
    uint public minimumContribution;
    address[] public approvers;

    function Crowdfunding(uint minimum) public {
        manager = msg.sender;
        minimumContribution = minimum;
    }
}

Below the struct I have variables I created that I can access in a function, but a struct does not contain variables it contains reference types. So if you want to use the Request struct, then you have to create a new variable and say it is a type of Request.

So the above does not create an instance of a Request it just creates the idea of it or the type.

To actually create a request and have it stored inside the contract I will make an array that specifically holds variables of type request.

I am going to make a new array and specify its type is being request.

contract Crowdfunding {
    struct Request {
        string description;
        uint value;
        address recipient;
        bool complete;
    }

    Request[] public requests;
    address public manager;
    uint public minimumContribution;
    address[] public approvers;

    function Crowdfunding(uint minimum) public {
        manager = msg.sender;
        minimumContribution = minimum;
    }

Notice I am using capital R because I used a capital R to define the struct. By convention we use capital for first letter when defining a struct which is dissimilar to how we do our other type definitions.

This variable of type Request is given the name requests and now anywhere in my contract I can make use of the requests array.

I could say requests.push() and push in a new request or give me the new requests in there with request index of zero like so: requests[0].

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