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I am in confusion of the terms full node, light node ,miner and non-mining/non-miner. Please help me differentiate

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A full node has the full blockchain downloaded and available. There are multiple pruning methods in clients that store different levels of the blockchain as well.

Pruning Mode Differences

A light node does not store the blockchain, but gets the parts it cares about from someone it trusts.

Light Client Protocol

Consensys Light Wallet

To be a miner you need to run a full node, and also run a mining package. Some clients have mining built in, as well as other mining options.

Geth Mining

GPU Mining

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