How to prevent smart contract from the vulnerabilities? what are all the security measurements we need to consider before publishing our smart contract?
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Vulnerabilities prevention is what you do while coding the contract, i.e. following good practices, like what you can find at https://consensys.github.io/smart-contract-best-practices/
and then, when the coding is done and everything is tested, hiring independent auditors ( not the same people who coded the contract ), those you have to find. There are plenty of companies doing it - check https://solidified.io/ and, naturally, Google search.
Exist some websites with useful information, and of course use correct tools for development.
In the link above you can check best practices and tools and known attacks.