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I am new to blockchain and Ethereum. Below are queries I had when I started learning and going through different posts on Ethereum sites:

  1. In Ethereum network, how one node will understand 51 percentage confirmed the new block creation. (is each node will have statistics i.e number of nodes active in the network)
  2. How the transaction are getting distributed to other peers in the network. Is the transaction are replicated to nearby nodes.
  3. How the network latency is handled across the peers (different parts of the world)
  4. How the transaction time managed in different geography
  5. How mining is get effected if one miner is having date setting is not updated
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In Ethereum network, how one node will understand 51 percentage confirmed the new block creation.

The nodes will (likely) follow the longest chain, depending on their setup. They have incentive to do so, as broadcasting to a "weak" chain is a waste of time and resources. Much of the software in existence will follow the canonical main chain.

How the transaction are getting distributed to other peers in the network. Is the transaction are replicated to nearby nodes.

Yes. Transactions are broadcasted out from a node into a pool of other transactions that can be read by all other nodes. All peers have a copy of all transactions and the state of the blockchain

How the network latency is handled across the peers (different parts of the world)

Take a look at this answer.

How the transaction time managed in different geography

In each block that is mined, the miner inputs the current time in UTC. There are rules surrounding this that force the miner to act in a cooperative manner.

How mining is get effected if one miner is having date setting is not updated

See the above answer. There are rules in place that do not let a miner manipulate the price (to an extent)

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