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someone know what the opcode CALLVALUE is for? I would like to understand it well. Have you an example on which I can easily understand it?

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When a contract call occurs, it receives some parameters on the stack, among these parameters, Value contains the amount of ETH this contract will receive to make some operations with it.

The emv.Call function looks like this:

func (evm *EVM) Call(caller ContractRef, addr common.Address, input []byte, gas uint64, value *big.Int) (ret []byte, leftOverGas uint64, err error) {
    if evm.vmConfig.NoRecursion && evm.depth > 0 {
        return nil, gas, nil
    }

    // Fail if we're trying to execute above the call depth limit
    if evm.depth > int(params.CallCreateDepth) {
        return nil, gas, ErrDepth
    }
    // Fail if we're trying to transfer more than the available balance
    if !evm.Context.CanTransfer(evm.StateDB, caller.Address(), value) {
        return nil, gas, ErrInsufficientBalance
    }

    var (
        to       = AccountRef(addr)
        snapshot = evm.StateDB.Snapshot()
    )
    if !evm.StateDB.Exist(addr) {
        precompiles := PrecompiledContractsHomestead
        if evm.ChainConfig().IsByzantium(evm.BlockNumber) {
            precompiles = PrecompiledContractsByzantium
        }
        if precompiles[addr] == nil && evm.ChainConfig().IsEIP158(evm.BlockNumber) && value.Sign() == 0 {
            // Calling a non existing account, don't do antything, but ping the tracer
            if evm.vmConfig.Debug && evm.depth == 0 {
                evm.vmConfig.Tracer.CaptureStart(caller.Address(), addr, false, input, gas, value)
                evm.vmConfig.Tracer.CaptureEnd(ret, 0, 0, nil)
            }
            return nil, gas, nil
        }
        evm.StateDB.CreateAccount(addr)
    }
    evm.Transfer(evm.StateDB, caller.Address(), to.Address(), value)

    // Initialise a new contract and set the code that is to be used by the EVM.
    // The contract is a scoped environment for this execution context only.
    contract := NewContract(caller, to, value, gas)
    contract.SetCallCode(&addr, evm.StateDB.GetCodeHash(addr), evm.StateDB.GetCode(addr))

    start := time.Now()

    // Capture the tracer start/end events in debug mode
    if evm.vmConfig.Debug && evm.depth == 0 {
        evm.vmConfig.Tracer.CaptureStart(caller.Address(), addr, false, input, gas, value)

        defer func() { // Lazy evaluation of the parameters
            evm.vmConfig.Tracer.CaptureEnd(ret, gas-contract.Gas, time.Since(start), err)
        }()
    }
    ret, err = run(evm, contract, input)

    // When an error was returned by the EVM or when setting the creation code
    // above we revert to the snapshot and consume any gas remaining. Additionally
    // when we're in homestead this also counts for code storage gas errors.
    if err != nil {
        evm.StateDB.RevertToSnapshot(snapshot)
        if err != errExecutionReverted {
            contract.UseGas(contract.Gas)
        }
    }
    return ret, contract.Gas, err
}

If you note, it gets the Value in parameters and stores it in the contract struct:

// Contract represents an ethereum contract in the state database. It contains
// the the contract code, calling arguments. Contract implements ContractRef
type Contract struct {
    // CallerAddress is the result of the caller which initialised this
    // contract. However when the "call method" is delegated this value
    // needs to be initialised to that of the caller's caller.
    CallerAddress common.Address
    caller        ContractRef
    self          ContractRef

    jumpdests destinations // result of JUMPDEST analysis.

    Code     []byte
    CodeHash common.Hash
    CodeAddr *common.Address
    Input    []byte

    Gas   uint64
    value *big.Int

    Args []byte

    DelegateCall bool
}

This is where the Value is stored:

value *big.Int

Now in evm.Call() function you see this line:

contract := NewContract(caller, to, value, gas)

This function stores the Value for further execution:

// NewContract returns a new contract environment for the execution of EVM.
func NewContract(caller ContractRef, object ContractRef, value *big.Int, gas uint64) *Contract {
    c := &Contract{CallerAddress: caller.Address(), caller: caller, self: object, Args: nil}

    if parent, ok := caller.(*Contract); ok {
        // Reuse JUMPDEST analysis from parent context if available.
        c.jumpdests = parent.jumpdests
    } else {
        c.jumpdests = make(destinations)
    }

    // Gas should be a pointer so it can safely be reduced through the run
    // This pointer will be off the state transition
    c.Gas = gas
    // ensures a value is set
    c.value = value

    return c
}

When the EVM encounters a CALLVALUE opcode, it gets this Value previously stored in the Contract struct:

func opCallValue(pc *uint64, evm *EVM, contract *Contract, memory *Memory, stack *Stack) ([]byte, error) {
    stack.push(evm.interpreter.intPool.get().Set(contract.value))
    return nil, nil
}

So, in short, CALLVALUE gives you the amount of ETH transferred to the contract by parent contract, or transaction. Sorry for so long explanation.

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