I found this example on the docs:

pragma solidity ^0.4.22;

contract owned {
    constructor() { owner = msg.sender; }
    address owner;

// Use `is` to derive from another contract. Derived
// contracts can access all non-private members including
// internal functions and state variables. These cannot be
// accessed externally via `this`, though.
contract mortal is owned {
    function kill() {
        if (msg.sender == owner) selfdestruct(owner);

// These abstract contracts are only provided to make the
// interface known to the compiler. Note the function
// without body. If a contract does not implement all
// functions it can only be used as an interface.
contract Config {
    function lookup(uint id) public returns (address adr);

contract NameReg {
    function register(bytes32 name) public;
    function unregister() public;

// Multiple inheritance is possible. Note that `owned` is
// also a base class of `mortal`, yet there is only a single
// instance of `owned` (as for virtual inheritance in C++).
contract named is owned, mortal {
    constructor(bytes32 name) {
        Config config = Config(0xD5f9D8D94886E70b06E474c3fB14Fd43E2f23970);

    // Functions can be overridden by another function with the same name and
    // the same number/types of inputs.  If the overriding function has different
    // types of output parameters, that causes an error.
    // Both local and message-based function calls take these overrides
    // into account.
    function kill() public {
        if (msg.sender == owner) {
            Config config = Config(0xD5f9D8D94886E70b06E474c3fB14Fd43E2f23970);
            // It is still possible to call a specific
            // overridden function.

// If a constructor takes an argument, it needs to be
// provided in the header (or modifier-invocation-style at
// the constructor of the derived contract (see below)).
contract PriceFeed is owned, mortal, named("GoldFeed") {
   function updateInfo(uint newInfo) public {
      if (msg.sender == owner) info = newInfo;

   function get() public view returns(uint r) { return info; }

   uint info;

why does the last contract inherit from "owned, mortal, named("GoldFeed")", couldn't be just named("GoldFeed") given that it is already inheriting the other two contracts?

  • 2
    You're right. It makes no difference in this case.
    – Henk
    Commented Aug 8, 2018 at 9:42
  • I am not sure, so this is why is not in an answer. But if the deployed contract is PriceFeed so it needs the 3 inheritances, using the owned contract's modifier in mortalneeds it to be defined inside or as inheritance in that contract especially if it is written in a seperate file. It is due to the fact that solidity checks the syntax before actually combining ( copying and pasting code ) the contracts. Commented Aug 8, 2018 at 10:40
  • I'm working on these two contracts, token and crowdsale. The inheritance looks fine: github.com/c-A-o-s/Solidity-Smart-Contracts?files=1
    – user38075
    Commented Aug 9, 2018 at 17:49

1 Answer 1


the answer is in the documentation itself:

at the section of "Multiple Inheritance and Linearization":

Solidity is similar to Python in that it uses “C3 Linearization” to force a specific order in the directed acyclic graph (DAG) of base classes

you have to list the direct base contracts in the order from “most base-like” to “most derived”. Note that this order is the reverse of the one used in Python.

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