I am very new in Blockchain and Ethereum. I know the has transactions and blocks with hashes etc. I also followed this example https://www.ethereum.org/greeter to create my own private Network with 2 Nodes. But in this example what is the transaction? The other peer calling the greet function? Is every greet stored in the Blockchain as an transaction? Or what happens if I provide a setter function for the greet String and someone uses it to change the greet String, is that a transaction and stored in the Blockchain?

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For an in-depth look into transactions on Ethereum, read check this out:

Transactions - Mastering Ethereum

This section specifically delves into transactions with data payloads to a contract.

In short, the transaction is simply a signed message which is emitted to the Ethereum network. Because the message is signed, we can verify that a specific caller/address made the request, and the network can then execute based on the payload's instructions and the subsequent contract code.

All transactions which have been processed do get stored in the blocks of the blockchain.

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