Is it bad practice to systematically use the memory keyword for variables declared within a function (other than constructor)?

1 Answer 1


It's good practice to explicitly use memory or storage to clarify whether a variable contains a pointer to memory or storage.

You should not always use the memory keyword, because it could make your code really inefficient: When you're assigning an array from storage to a memory pointer variable, the entire array will be read from storage and copied into memory.

Here's an example of a situation where you should not use memory:

contract Test
    uint256[1000] lotsOfNumbersInStorage;
    uint256[1000] moreNumbersInStorage;
    function calculateSomething(uint256 a) public view returns(uint256)
        uint256[1000] memory theChosenArray;
        if (a > 0) theChosenArray = lotsOfNumbersInStorage;
        else theChosenArray = moreNumbersInStorage;
        return theChosenArray[3] * theChosenArray[a];

Those assignments to theChosenArray look innocent, but they will copy the entire array from storage into memory, which will cost at least 200000 gas (200 gas per storage read * 1000 elements). In this case, you should declare theChosenArray as a storage pointer, not a memory pointer.

  • Wrt your code snippet: the 2 arrays you initially declared are on storage by default, since they are arrays, isn't it?
    – hartmut
    Commented Jun 22, 2018 at 13:52
  • 1
    @hartmut They are in storage because they have been declared inside the contract and not inside a function
    – Jesbus
    Commented Jun 22, 2018 at 14:24
  • Thx for this precision. Is any variable declared inside a contract, rather than inside a function, BY DEFAULT, in storage?
    – hartmut
    Commented Jun 23, 2018 at 15:51
  • @hartmut Yes, that is correct
    – Jesbus
    Commented Jun 23, 2018 at 15:55

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