I'm doing a project on blockchain technology where we are supposed to do some kind of measurement and evaluate the result. I've heard that you can set up a Ethereum node and get some kind of information that way, but I'm confused as to what information is available if you run your own node. Some guidelines of possible measurements that are possible would be greatly appreciated! Thanks
I'm not sure what kind of information you are looking for. Statistics about the network or data about what happens in the network?
You get some statistics, such as current block number and so on. Some info is here: Ethereum block architecture and the Ethereum White Paper has more details.
But for network data, you get it all. Everything that happens in the network gets processed in your node as well. So if someone at the other side of the globe sends Ether to his friend, your node processes the transaction as well - all nodes process all transaction. So, you can basically follow anything that happens in the network.