You can use the
Generates a new account in the node’s keychain encrypted with the given
passphrase. Returns the address of the created account.
Note that for security purposes, nodes do not expose the private key over the
json-rpc api that web3 uses. I'm not aware of a way to access your public key either.
If you want local keys instead of hosted keys, then check out: How can I generate a wallet in python?
Edit: it seems you really want both things: a local key and a hosted key at the same time. To accomplish that, you could create the key in the node and then extract it. That involves finding the file and decrypting it.
Where your keyfile is kept depends on your choice of node, OS, and configuration. I'll assume the default
geth keystore folder:
You can decrypt the keyfile using the eth-account method
from eth_account import Account
with open('~/.ethereum/keystore/<your_keyfile_name>') as keyfile:
keyfile_json = keyfile.read()
private_key = Account.decrypt(keyfile_json, '<you-account-password>')
# get some extra info about the private_key, like the address:
acct = Account.privateKeyToAccount(private_key)
ether_address = acct.address
You also asked about the public key, which is not an often used part of Ethereum, so there's no great API for it. You can use this non-public API, but note that these variable names could change at any time: