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In the Plasma whitepaper, they refer several times to "data availability". What does this mean exactly?

This needs to be able to minimize issues around the data availability problem (i.e. block withholding) [...]

this proposal is primarily around data availability and encouraging cost minimiza- tion around fraud proofs[...]

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Data availability problem is basically, that if someone withholds some data in a block, we cannot verify 100% the state, even if the block is valid as a whole. So its like a valid block but with some data not available to the network. Read more here or watch here

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