Ethereum's blocktimes is under 10 seconds but other coins like BTC, LTC, and others are usually in minutes. How does ethereum solve the problems to why those other blocktimes are in minutes? Basically looking for a comparison and the pros/cons of having such short blocktimes and how it compares to other coins.
Average Ethereum blocktime is closer to 15 seconds.
The reason blockchains generaly have larger block times is due to uncle rates. When 2 miners mine separate blocks at the same height, the network has to decide which one is correct. Both will generally be mined on, until one gets longer. These uncles aren't included in most blockchains and the miners aren't rewarded for the work they put into them. Miners don't like not getting paid.
Ethereum, on the other hand, actually does reward miners for uncles. A miner can include an uncle in a block for a small reward, and the miner of the uncle block also gets a reward. This way, miners are happier with lower block times because they still get paid. These rewards for uncles are lower than the rewards for a full block though, so miners don't want the blocktime to be so low that there are a ton of uncles.
The other thing that effects uncle rates is the size of the blocks. See the uncle rate at https://etherscan.io/chart/uncles and how it relates to the gas limit at https://etherscan.io/chart/gaslimit. When gas limit goes up, uncle rate goes up because blocks take longer to process.