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I've noticed many protocols using validators like Casper, Tendermint, EOS require 2/3 of nodes (weighted) as the quorum requirement.

What's the reasoning for using this seemingly arbitrary number? Why not 51%?

  • Actually, not an arbitrary number, but its based on the 33% (1/3) theory of Byzantine fault tolerance. – 1sn0s Feb 11 '18 at 10:35
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    More information here – 1sn0s Feb 11 '18 at 10:50
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    @1sn0s: +1 - definitely worth adding as a proper answer :-) – Richard Horrocks Feb 21 '18 at 20:46
  • Agreed, I'll accept it if you do :) – Daniel Que Feb 21 '18 at 22:56
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Actually, not an arbitrary number, but its based on the 33% (1/3) theory of Byzantine fault tolerance. More information and better context here

Suppose we have a traitorous Commander A, and two Lieutenants, B and C: when A tells B to attack and C to retreat, and B and C send messages to each other, forwarding A's message, neither B nor C can figure out who is the traitor, since it is not necessarily A—another Lieutenant could have forged the message purportedly from A. It can be shown that if n is the number of generals in total, and t is the number of traitors in that n, then there are solutions to the problem only when n > 3t and the communication is synchronous (bounded delay). More about Byzantine fault tolerance.

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