I moved on from PoW (which takes an eternity, I don't know why) to a PoA consensus (which is quasi instantaneous since I set the block mining to 1 second). Now everything works really quickly on my private blockchain.

Issue: I get stuck after sending one transaction. In the flow of my prototype I have to wait for the transaction to be mined to move on to doing other stuff (notably, sending other transactions). The issue here is that I get "Signed recently, must wait for others" after sending one transaction...

As I understand, this is a security feature of the consensus algorithm. I'd just like to know if it's possible to have only one signer (at a time) and still get my blocks mined. (I don't really want to take the whole geth source code to edit that paragraph than recompile etc. It seems like overkill. Is there a quick way to hack around this?)

Many thanks :)

1 Answer 1


I think the reason is this in Clique

Any change needs to be proposed by 50%+1 nodes in the network for it to come into effect. For 2 signers, 50%+1 is actually two. You need to have your second signer vote itself out too.

from karalabe's comment on https://github.com/ethereum/go-ethereum/issues/14451

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