I'm building my dApp by modifying the pet-shop example, however, I got stuck at the migration step. 1_initial_migration.js runs successfully but 2_deploy_contracts.js gives me the following error despite the fact I modified it accordingly.

I've read all the Migration Documentation and gone through a number of related post but I'm still having a hard time understanding how it relates to my project.

... 0x48c02fda96b9e71d1b219e4b09876181027c60aa2589c9ccd7f46f2970e4f34b Error encountered, bailing. Network state unknown. Review successful transactions manually. Error: VM Exception while processing transaction: invalid opcode at Object.InvalidResponse (C:\Users\charles.fried\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\truffle\build\cli.bundled.js:43303:16) at C:\Users\charles.fried\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\truffle\build\cli.bundled.js:331156:36 at C:\Users\charles.fried\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\truffle\build\cli.bundled.js:175492:11 at C:\Users\charles.fried\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\truffle\build\cli.bundled.js:314196:9 at XMLHttpRequest.request.onreadystatechange (C:\Users\charles.fried\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\truffle\build\cli.bundled.js:329855:7) at XMLHttpRequestEventTarget.dispatchEvent (C:\Users\charles.fried\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\truffle\build\cli.bundled.js:70159:18) at XMLHttpRequest._setReadyState (C:\Users\charles.fried\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\truffle\build\cli.bundled.js:70449:12) at XMLHttpRequest._onHttpResponseEnd (C:\Users\charles.fried\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\truffle\build\cli.bundled.js:70604:12) at IncomingMessage. (C:\Users\charles.fried\AppData\Roaming\npm\node_modules\truffle\build\cli.bundled.js:70564:24) at emitNone (events.js:91:20)


var Plant = artifacts.require("Plant");

module.exports = function(deployer) {


pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

contract Plant {

    address public creator;

    // initial Variables
    uint public number_of_leaves;
    uint public remaining_leaves = 0; // has to start on 1 otherwise it cancels price calculation
    uint public initial_coins;
    uint public total_supply;
    uint public finney_balance; // 1 Ether is 1,000 finney - see this converter -> https://converter.murkin.me/
    uint public plant_price = 60; // Price is in Finney $20 if approx 60 Finney
    uint public number_of_plants;

    // Modififer to check if there's enough money for a new plant without wasting gas
    modifier onlyIfEnoughMoney() {
        require(finney_balance > plant_price); 

    // only_creator can update price
    modifier onlyCreator() {
        require(msg.sender == creator);

    // you need to send some money to initialise the contract
    modifier enoughToInitialise() {
        require(msg.value > 0);

    function Plant(uint _number_of_leaves, uint _initial_coins) public payable enoughToInitialise {
        number_of_leaves = _number_of_leaves;
        remaining_leaves = number_of_leaves;
        initial_coins = _initial_coins;
        total_supply = initial_coins;
        finney_balance = msg.value/1000000000000000;
        creator = msg.sender;
        number_of_plants ++;
        depositedFunds(msg.value, finney_balance);

    function buy_new_plant() private onlyIfEnoughMoney {

        uint number_plants_to_buy = finney_balance / plant_price;

        total_supply += (initial_coins*number_plants_to_buy);
        finney_balance -= (plant_price*number_plants_to_buy);
        number_of_plants += number_plants_to_buy; 
        plantWasPurchased(finney_balance, total_supply, number_of_plants);

    function () payable public {
        finney_balance += msg.value/1000000000000000;
        depositedFunds(msg.value, finney_balance);

    function terminate() private onlyCreator{

    function leafPicked(uint numPicked) public onlyCreator returns (uint){
        require(numPicked < remaining_leaves);
        remaining_leaves -= numPicked;
        leafWasPicked(remaining_leaves, numPicked);

    event leafWasPicked(uint leavesLeft, uint numberTaken);
    event plantWasPurchased(uint newBalance, uint newTotalSupply, uint newPlantNumber); // Event
    event depositedFunds(uint amount, uint newBalance); // Event


In the deployer call, you need to pass in the arguments of the Plant constructor. Otherwise, the constructor fails because the arguments are undefined.

module.exports = function(deployer, network, accounts) {
  deployer.deploy(Plant, <someNumberOfLeaves>, <someInitialCoin>, { from: accounts[0], value: 1e18 );

This is mentioned in this section: Deployer API

  • Much appreciated, the initialisation function is also payable and requires some ether to be sent. How should I do this? – Charles.fried Nov 16 '17 at 8:57
  • You can specify the value to send when deploying the contract in the parameters object following the arguments. See my revised answer. Note I also added parameters to the function (network & accounts) so you can specify which account the value is coming from – carlolm Nov 16 '17 at 9:16
  • I can see accounts being used but not network, could briefly explain its role? – Charles.fried Nov 16 '17 at 9:19
  • networks is the object key / string (such as "development", "testnet", "mainnet") from your truffle.js config file of the network that deployer is deploying to (truffleframework.com/docs/getting_started/…). I included that there because the function argument syntax requires that there's a networks parameter before accounts (truffleframework.com/docs/getting_started/…) – carlolm Nov 16 '17 at 9:32

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