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Serpent looks quite similar to Python. What behaviors or syntax would be on your list to warn other Serpent developers about?

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While Serpent uses a syntax very similar to Python, there are some important differences to be aware of:

  • Python numbers have potentially unlimited size, Serpent numbers wrap around 2^256. For example, in Serpent the expression 3^(2^254) surprisingly evaluates to 1, even though in reality the actual integer is too large to be recorded in its entirety within the universe.
  • Serpent has no decimals.
  • Serpent has no list comprehensions (expressions like [x**2 for x in my_list]), dictionaries or most other advanced features
  • Serpent has no concept of first-class functions. Contracts do have functions, and can call their own functions, but variables (except storage) do not persist across calls.
  • Serpent has a concept of persistent storage variables.
  • Serpent has an extern statement used to call functions from other contracts.

From Serpent wiki: Differences Between Serpent and Python

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