Assume a transaction is tx. My question is that

Question 1: Does a sender sign all fields in a transaction and put the signature in the transaction?, so does it send to the network?

Question 2: Is there anything in a transaction not signed by the sender?

1 Answer 1


The answers you seek are in the Yellow Paper, Appendix F and section 4.3.

Specifically, enter image description here

This means that for a normal transaction (not contract creation) the following quantities are signed:

  • The nonce
  • The gas price
  • The gas amount
  • The To address
  • The value
  • The transaction data

(optionally a new signature scheme involving chainId is also allowed as described in EIP 155)

The only non-signed elements of the transaction are v, r and s, "Values corresponding to the signature of the transaction and used to determine the sender of the transaction" - i.e. the signature itself.

  • Hi @Adrian Ad - Did this answer your question? If so it would be good to mark it as answered for the benefit of others. Dec 4, 2017 at 20:38

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