It sounds to me you run on a Windows OS. I professionally develop using C#, jQuery, etc., just like you. I got started developing smart contracts and interfaces on my Macbook Pro, but switched over to Windows 10 recently.
The tutorial I followed was in setting up a block explorer with a React.js front end. It was fairly simplistic; setting up the private Ethereum blockchain was one of the harder parts, but I learned a lot. In the end, using TestRPC was much faster for the actual smart contract development and debugging.
Don't bother trying to use Windows 10 Ubuntu subsystem; it took me an afternoon of frustration to learn the hard way that it's just not feasible.
As a side note, keep in mind that your "stack" does not involve a SQL database; the blockchain is your database, and runtime environment.