I'd like to deploy contracts from truffle using a localhost wallet but without syncing all the chain. I think this should be possible: a lightweight client able to connect to the network and to sign transactions, like Jaxx does, but also able to listen to some localhost port and interact with truffle.
you can use myetherwallet they provide you the ability to deploy the contract's bytecode directly into the blockchain without syncing. you need only to provide a valid private key.
for the second part you can use an infura node to drive the truffle transactions, read more on the official doc http://truffleframework.com/tutorials/using-infura-custom-provider