Can someone explain to me how proof of stake works in detail? And in particular, which is the difference (if it exists) between proof of stake in general and Casper protocol of Ethereum? Thank you all!
Proof of stake (PoS) is a class of consensus algorithms that utilize digital assets to secure a blockchain. There are many different PoS implementations. Differences include what is staked -- in some cryptocurrencies (e.g., PeerCoin), all coins in a wallet are staked like interest in a bank; in others (e.g., the proposed Casper protocol for Ethereum), stakers are bonded and can lose the amount being staked.
Casper is a subset of PoS algorithms. And it doesn't really make sense (at least to me) to ask how an element of a set differs from the set.