- What are the similarities / differences between them?
- Which use cases are best for each network
- Are there more than these listed above?
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If you need support on both geth and parity go wtih Ropsten. Otherwise choose Kovan, Sokol or Rinkeby as they are more stable.
Detailed version below:
geth --networkid 3
parity --chain ropsten
parity --chain kovan
geth --networkid 4
15 seconds on average
There are other networks as well, as described in this SO answer, copied here with their network id numbers:
0: Olympic, Ethereum public pre-release testnet
1: Frontier, Homestead, Metropolis, the Ethereum public main network
1: Classic, the (un)forked public Ethereum Classic main network, chain ID
1: Expanse, an alternative Ethereum implementation, chain ID
2: Morden, the public Ethereum testnet, now Ethereum Classic testnet
3: Ropsten, the public cross-client Ethereum testnet
4: Rinkeby, the public Geth Ethereum testnet
42: Kovan, the public Parity Ethereum testnet
77: Sokol, the public POA testnet
99: POA, the public Proof of Authority Ethereum network
7762959: Musicoin, the music blockchain