I am trying to store customer data (name,address,dob,age etc) into blockchain. Is there any way of storing these values without smart contract ?
If you ever intend to retrieve the data from the blockchain, then no. The smart contract provides the storage you would later need to query to retrieve the data. A regular 'external' account has no storage, and the only type of account other than a smart contract is a regular external account.
You could send a data payload in a transaction's
input data field (you can send anything in the
input data field as I describe in this article: https://medium.com/@tjayrush/knowing-the-future-and-proving-you-know-it-3add7a69d54c), but the data wouldn't be stored on chain (other than in the record of the transaction).
If there was a way to later retrieve the history of those transactions (there is--it's called the RPC interface), you could rebuild the data from there, but you wouldn't be able to query the data from the blockchain the way you can query public variable values from a smart contract.