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I'm aware that msg.value is the amount of "wei" sent to the contract according to this page. I think it's sent from a transaction so it should be defined there.

Question: How is the value of msg.value in a transaction is defined to have a structure like: msg.value in the contract?

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    It is part of the transaction, from the Ethereum Yellow Paper, section 4.2 "The transaction" it has a field called 'value'. From a contract you cant get this value with the opcode CALLVALUE (0x34), section H.2 "Instruction Set", table "30s Environmental Information" . – Ismael Aug 15 '17 at 18:52
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This is what the crontact receive in ethereum (what the sender of the transaction pay exclude gas and miner fee). It is in wei (1 ethereum = 10000000000000000000 wei (10^18)) wei is like satoshi a subunit more precise.

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It is part of the transaction, from the Ethereum Yellow Paper, section 4.2 "The transaction" it has a field named 'value'.

From a contract you get the value with the opcode CALLVALUE (0x34), section H.2 "Instruction Set", table "30s Environmental Information".

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