No. A JSON RPC endpoint implements functionality per a specification.
Mist/Metamask implement transaction validation within the client prior to sending the transaction to the backing node.
In your example you are sending the transaction directly to the node and thus you need to do the appropriate validation in advance.
In reality you can attach any data to a transaction, so whilst incorrectly signed transaction data wont do what you expect it to do, it is not necessarily invalid.
EDIT - More information
If you want to discern if a transaction will throw, you need to run it in an environment which mimics the state of the chain and see what happens.
Geth and Parity implement the
[eth_estimateGas](https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/JSON-RPC#eth_estimategas) endpoint which when called with a function call that throws will return an error.