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enter image description here

as you can see in the above screen capture, I'm trying to send some ethers through the command line.

something slightly confusing is that from this documentation (I'm using geth), it doesn't seem to indicate a place to specify the gas price, transaction fee, etc. why not?

why did this transaction fail?

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The sending account is locked. You need to unlock it first. In this example you can use personal.unlockAccount(eth.coinbase)

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something about start geth like this:

geth --unlock '0xd7a9a61a480d458a1181e0563b0555589a6' --testnet --etherbase '0xd7a9a61a480d458a1181e0563b055554489a6' --mine

then, see here:

enter image description here

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The documentation you're looking for is the web3 documentation for sendTransaction. You can set the gas and gasPrice properties on the object to specify how much gas to send, and how much to pay per unit of gas, respectively.

As others have pointed out, you're getting an error because the account is not unlocked. You can use either of the solutions provided to ensure your account is unlocked before calling sendTransaction

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