I have found the below diagram (and this explanation) useful in understanding how blockchains work in general:
This answer goes on to say that
Ethereum's actual blockchain structure is somewhat more elaborate...
I'd like to understand how the turing complete smart contract programming language fits into Ethereum's blockchain creation and confirmation.
This diagram, from here, shows a similar diagram, adapted for Ethereum:
What other diagrams are there to illustrate the Ethereum blockchain process and overall architecture?