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Most layer two chains have their centralised sequencer which operates first-come-first-server, or so-called fair sequencing manner. If you use the centralised sequencer, there are no Malicious Extractable Value (MEV) risks.

How can one connect to this centralised sequencer directly and broadcast their transaction using it? This would be the opposite of broadcasting using JSON-RPC services providers that are known to frontrun their own customers.

What are the mechanisms e.g. for

  • Arbitrum
  • Optimism
  • Base

and how do they differ from each other?

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You can send transactions directly to the sequencer by using their RPC url. These RPC only support eth_sendRawTransaction (or eth_sendRawTransactionConditional), so for example you can't use them to make a eth_call.

The disadvantage compared to a normal RPC is that the sequencer will temporarily blacklist your IP address if you send invalid transactions. So it's not recommended for the normal user. However if you are running a bot that already checks the validity of a tx, this is the fastest way to have it included in a block.

On Optimism the sequencer RPC is https://mainnet-sequencer.optimism.io/ (docs), on Arbitrum it's https://arb1-sequencer.arbitrum.io/rpc (docs).

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