I hit the dead end with some confusions related to eth2.0 and would appreciate your help. Tried many things but still couldn't understand. I know this is the place to ask a single question, but I have small, but many questions. Would be great if I can get answers about this so that I can start researching on my own.

  1. as far as i can see, we already left phase 0 and there should be a single chain now. POW chain should be discarded. So when I use eth_getBlockByNumber, why does it not return block info that contains aggregated signature ?
  2. Since validators vote on the block and aggregation of signatures happen which gets stored in a block, how is 12 seconds time enough for this ? assume a validator proposes a block, propagation of this block happens, reaches validators, then other validators attest(sign on some data), then signatures of each validator are broadcasted, aggregators aggregate all in one, and final signature must be written in a block by block proposer. 12 seconds is not enough time for this definitely, so how does it happen ? If you say that validators attest on the previous block of current block, then previous block(even after already added into the chain) is updated ? this doesn't make sense.

1 Answer 1


I'm here to help with your questions but remember; my answers might only cover some of them, so it's good to DYOR too!

  1. Although Eth2.0 uses a single PoS chain and the PoW chain is gone, eth_getBlockByNumber doesn't return aggregated signatures yet. This is due to ongoing development and efficiency considerations. Future updates might include them, but for now, the method prioritizes a smaller block size for faster network operation. Refer: https://ethereum.org/developers/docs/apis/json-rpc#eth_getblockbynumber

  2. While 12 seconds might seem like a blink of an eye for Ethereum's Proof-of-Stake (PoS) system to validate and finalize transactions, clever mechanisms make it possible. Validators are divided into committees, each handling specific sets of blocks, rather than voting on every block individually. Signatures from validators within these committees are aggregated efficiently on the lightweight Beacon Chain, which operates separately from the main Ethereum chain. Finality is guaranteed through checkpoints at regular intervals, ensuring blocks within them are irreversible, thus enhancing the security of the network. Additionally, optimistic execution allows for faster block inclusion, with invalid blocks simply removed later through mechanisms such as slashing. This intricate interplay of techniques ensures Ethereum's PoS system achieves swift consensus and transaction finalization within its 12-second timeframe, maintaining scalability and decentralization.

  • in (1), you say there's a single chain, in (2), you say there's a separate beacon chain. This was my actual question which I don't think you answered. sorry
    – Neo
    Feb 26 at 12:12

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