This JavaScript test code is from a course I'm undertaking:

before(async () => {
        const Collectible = await ethers.getContractFactory("Collectible");
        collectible = await Collectible.deploy();
        [owner, a2, a3] = await ethers.provider.listAccounts();
        oneEther = parseEther("1.0");
        halfEther = parseEther("0.5");

And works fine in their environment. We just use a web view and I can't see what they are doing behind the scenes.

I tried to bring this in to my IDE but even running npx hardhat test gives the error:

     TypeError: ethers.provider.listAccounts is not a function

So I started again and just used the provided contract/Lock.sol and test/Lock.js with:

mkdir testDir && cd testDir
npm init -y
npm i -D hardhat
npx hardhat init  # and said yes to everything

I updated the test to contain:

async function deployOneYearLockFixture() {
    const ONE_YEAR_IN_SECS = 365 * 24 * 60 * 60;
    const ONE_GWEI = 1_000_000_000;

    const lockedAmount = ONE_GWEI;
    const unlockTime = (await time.latest()) + ONE_YEAR_IN_SECS;

    // Contracts are deployed using the first signer/account by default
    const [owner, otherAccount] = await ethers.getSigners();

    const Lock = await ethers.getContractFactory("Lock");
    const lock = await Lock.deploy(unlockTime, { value: lockedAmount });

    const [owner2, b2, b3] = await ethers.provider.listAccounts();
    console.log(`owner: ${owner2}, address: ${owner2.getAddress()}`)

    return { lock, unlockTime, lockedAmount, owner, otherAccount };

(Adding the await ethers.provider.listAccounts() and console.log lines).

Running this also gives that error:

 1) Lock
         Should set the right unlockTime:
     TypeError: ethers.provider.listAccounts is not a function
      at deployOneYearLockFixture (test/Lock.js:26:56)
      at processTicksAndRejections (node:internal/process/task_queues:95:5)
      at loadFixture (node_modules/@nomicfoundation/hardhat-network-helpers/src/loadFixture.ts:59:18)
      at Context.<anonymous> (test/Lock.js:34:36)

It is not the provider as such since this Lock.js test also contains:

      expect(await ethers.provider.getBalance(lock.target)).to.equal(

It is like something is missing from the configuration like the following but nothing is standing out in the Hardhat documentation:

extendEnvironment((hre) => {
  const Web3 = require("web3");
  hre.Web3 = Web3;

  // hre.network.provider is an EIP1193-compatible provider.
  hre.web3 = new Web3(hre.network.provider);

This is from https://hardhat-lime.vercel.app/hardhat-runner/docs/advanced/hardhat-runtime-environment#extending-the-hre but then why is ethers.provider.getBalance() working ok - so it doesn't seem to be the provider.

Am I missing something in the configuration, or just misunderstanding something?

I dug a bit deeper:

npx hardhat console
> ethers

  wordlists: {
    cz: LangCz { locale: 'cz' },
    en: LangEn { locale: 'en' },
    es: LangEs { locale: 'es' },
    fr: LangFr { locale: 'fr' },
    it: LangIt { locale: 'it' },
    pt: LangPt { locale: 'pt' },
    ja: LangJa { locale: 'ja' },
    ko: LangKo { locale: 'ko' },
    zh_cn: LangZh { locale: 'zh_cn' },
    zh_tw: LangZh { locale: 'zh_tw' }
  provider: HardhatEthersProvider {
    _hardhatProvider: LazyInitializationProviderAdapter {
      _providerFactory: [AsyncFunction (anonymous)],
      _emitter: [EventEmitter],
      _initializingPromise: [Promise],
      provider: [BackwardsCompatibilityProviderAdapter]
    _networkName: 'hardhat',
    _blockListeners: [],
    _transactionHashListeners: Map(0) {},
    _eventListeners: []
  getSigner: [Function: getSigner],
  getSigners: [Function: getSigners],

Maybe the LazyInitializationProviderAdapter is not working properly?


  • Node: v18.17.1
  • Hardhat: 2.18.3 and also 2.17.4 tested
  • Hardhat brings in ethers: 6.8.0 for both

I found https://github.com/ethers-io/ethers.js/issues/3778 "Ethers v6: missing listAccounts() function for browserProvider" but according to that issue it was fixed in 6.1. Of course I"m not trying to use the BrowserProvider. Is this the problem - that I'm meant to select the local default provider?

Any help appreciated.

More info:

  • indeed it seems like the default Hardhat provider does not have a listAccounts() function.

IDE right-clicking on ethers gets me to:


Then to:


export interface HardhatEthersHelpers {
  provider: HardhatEthersProvider;


Then to:


export class HardhatEthersProvider implements ethers.Provider {
  private _isHardhatNetworkCached: boolean | undefined;


  public async getBalance(
    address: AddressLike,
    blockTag?: BlockTag | undefined
  ): Promise<bigint> {


But there is no listAccounts() in that. So that answers part of the question.

So where is it ..

The only location that function is found is:


export abstract class JsonRpcApiProvider extends AbstractProvider {


And the only places that extend this are:

* 12:class BrowserProvider extends provider_jsonrpc_js_1.JsonRpcApiPollingProvider {

155:class SocketProvider extends provider_jsonrpc_js_1.JsonRpcApiProvider {

* 787:class JsonRpcProvider extends JsonRpcApiPollingProvider {

OK, so it seems I need to create one of these providers. Let me work on that ...

NUP can't get that working either.

I tried adding this to hardhat.config.js


But make no difference.

Any ideas would be much appreciated!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • I created the sample Hardhat typescript project, thus giving my IDE a bit more insight. It agrees that there is no ethers.provider.listAccounts(). However it obviously exists and I'm curious as to how to get there.
    – HankCa
    Oct 30, 2023 at 23:41

2 Answers 2


Ok, egg on face (palm) time!

listAccounts() is Ethers5 only - https://docs.ethers.org/v5/search/?search=listAccounts and not available under v6, which I'm trying to only use.

Mon in the Alchemy Discord suggested using ethers.provider.getSigners() [in v6].

BTW I had spent some time upgrading the code Alchemy provided us to Ethers6, which was a good exercise but took way too much time (when done over and over for each exercise and project).

I moved to installing the hardhat that uses ether's 5:

npm i [email protected]

I'm totally new to Ethereum and I just faced the same issue in ethers v6.10.0

ethers.provider.listAccounts is not a function

I was able to get the list of accounts by using:

const provider = new ethers.JsonRpcProvider();
const accounts = await provider.listAccounts();
  • That's awesome. Most of times I feel myself a POW miner that searching correct information in the God damn old documents. Mar 27 at 14:08

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