So I read this article, which explains how Proof of Stake works in ethereum, I think I understand how blocks are proposed, and how are they attested and then finalized to be part of the main chain. I also learned that the transition was not an instant moment in history, but consisted of two steps:

  • Introduction of the Beacon Chain, which worked alongside the older proof of work mechanism
  • The merge, which moved hybrid pow/pos to the exclusive proof of stake mechanism.

What I don't understand is how this hybrid PoW/PoS system worked exactly, more specifically what was the responsibilities of the beacon chain here, before the merge. I understand that miners were still trying to find the hash and "mine the block", and did the consensus clients responsible to vote for the block and justify/finalize it? or is there some more responsibilities I'm not aware of.

I also read on somewhere that this slow transition process helped to test out the beacon chain before the full switch to the Pos, but you can't freely test something if the whole system relies on it. Or maybe the Beacon Chain's blocks were independent of the original PoW mechanisms blocks and during the merged everything merged with each other?


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