The plain accounts/wallets in Ethereum hold just one private key, so you'd need to generate multiple accounts to differentiate between various income sources.
Certain clients do have support for HD wallets where one private key can be used to derive multiple accounts (e.g. go-ethereum can derive arbitrarily many accounts from a Ledger hardware wallet).
That being said, there's an important difference between bitcoin and Ethereum that you need to be aware of. AFAIK in bitcoin you can create a transactions that spends funds from multiple accounts all at once, so you could for example sweep all your accounts via a single transaction.
In Ethereum however only one account can initiate the transaction and inherently you can move the funds from only a single account at once. As such, if you split for example your mining income into 10 accounts, sweeping them together would incur 10 transaction costs.