One of the promises of AA was that we would no longer need EOAs. However, when I see providers of smart wallets like Safe and Biconomy, both still require you to have an EOA to call the contract, which means losing a private key is still very dangerous.

I'm aware that AA allows for multi-sig, but will there ever be a future where EOAs aren't needed at all?

3 Answers 3


Technically speaking EOAs are no longer needed with AA, since the one sending the transaction doesn't need to be an account anymore. It can be one of many different things - typically just a keypair.

Most likely EOA as a concept will not be used with AA, unless the transaction sender, for some reason, is also an account. Of course we'll have EOAs for a long while alongside AA stuff, or maybe always.

I'm not exactly sure of what kind of AA wallet implementations exist currently in Ethereum, but I would imagine the first ones are just utilizing existing wallet software. Therefore it's easiest to just use the keypair from an account. I don't know if there exist wallets for purely AA connections yet - but at some point most likely will.


Please see my other answer here - https://ethereum.stackexchange.com/a/150750/111951


Yes, using AA smart contracts will be able to initiate smart contract calls (without EOA).

But in many cases EOA will still be needed: to setup AA, to sign transactions in some cases, etc.


You don't need a EOA, but you most likely still need a keypair to sign and authenticate UserOperation (else any can send UserOperation on behalf of you!)

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