I am creating a crowdfunding dApp and am trying to figure out why a revert error is being called on the pledgeToCampaignfunction every time I click a button to pledge ether. I'll lay out the error, my React code, and Solidity code for the function being called.

Here is the full error I get when I click the "Pledge" button that calls onclick={pledgeToCampaign}:

Error: cannot estimate gas; transaction may fail or may require manual gas limit [ See: https://links.ethers.org/v5-errors-UNPREDICTABLE_GAS_LIMIT ] (reason="execution reverted: Has ended", method="estimateGas", transaction={"from":"0x90BadE35Da052450B01e99b38Cbb550BC3f1dD58","to":"0x882978f7Afef5bc38c73461f4Bf096e5dF03Ef5C","data":"0x1f6dbc500000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000b5e620f48000","accessList":null}, error={"code":-32603,"message":"execution reverted: Has ended","data":{"originalError":{"code":3,"data":"0x08c379a00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000020000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000948617320656e6465640000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000","message":"execution reverted: Has ended"}}}, code=UNPREDICTABLE_GAS_LIMIT, version=providers/5.7.2)
    at Logger.makeError (index.ts:271:1)
    at Logger.throwError (index.ts:284:1)
    at checkError (json-rpc-provider.ts:79:1)
    at Web3Provider.<anonymous> (json-rpc-provider.ts:644:1)
    at Generator.throw (<anonymous>)
    at rejected (json-rpc-provider.ts:1:1)

The revert error Has ended doesn't make any sense because the campaign I am trying to pledge to is active and the end date isn't for another month. I know that the pledgeTo function on the smart contract works properly because on Etherscan I can pledge to this same campaign ID without an error.

Here is the Solidity code just in case:

  // Function to pledge to a campaign 
    function pledgeTo(uint _id) external payable {
    Campaign storage campaign = campaigns[_id];
    require(block.timestamp >= campaign.startAt, "Hasn't started");
    require(block.timestamp <= campaign.endAt, "Has ended");
    // Prevent reentry
    campaign.pledged += msg.value;
    pledgedAmount[_id][msg.sender] += msg.value;
    // Emit Pledge
    emit Pledge(_id, msg.sender, msg.value);

My theory is: I am not properly passing the campaign ID to the pledgeToCampaign function. Meaning it's trying to pledge to the 0 campaign, which has obviously expired. Instead of the campaign that I would be currently trying to pledge to, which in this case is 6.

Here is my React function to call the writeable function pledgeTo from the smart contract:

// I separated all the writable functions in a separate configs file to export
// Imports for ethers and Contract ABI

// Pledge to a campaign
export async function pledgeTo(signer, amount) {
  const factory = new ethers.Contract(contractAddress, CrowdGaming.abi, signer);
  return factory.pledgeTo(amount);

I believe my error is I need to pass an id as an argument/value because on Etherscan, I have to pass an id and the amount in ether in order to submit the pledged amount to the campaign. But I'll explain why that doesn't work for me:

On my front-end, here is how I set up the pledgeToCampaign function:

// imported the pledgeTo function from configs

  // Pledge to campaign
  async function pledgeToCampaign() {
    const amount = ethers.utils.parseEther(

    try {
      const tx = await pledgeTo(signer, amount);
    } catch (err) {
      setErrMsg(`Uh oh, an error occurred!`);

I have an input field for someone to enter an id number and then the code properly displays that campaign.

  // Get campaign by ID
  async function getCampaigns() {
    const id = document.getElementById("id").value;
    // ethers contract METHODS
    const campaign = await contract.campaigns(id);

But when I try to add const id = document.getElementById("id").value; into the pledgeToCampaign function, specifically at the line:const tx = await pledgeTo(signer, id, amount);, I get an error that says there are 1 too many arguments, as it expects 2.

When I remove the signer from both the pledgeTo and the pledgeToCampaign functions, I get an error that says requires signer.

So to summarize, I believe my issue lies in not properly calling the right id into the either the pledgeTo and/or pledgeToCampaign functions, as it's probably just trying to pledge to campaign 0 every time.

If anyone could help me solve this that would be great!

1 Answer 1


You should use const tx = await pledgeTo(signer, id, amount); and modify the function like this:

// Pledge to a campaign
export async function pledgeTo(signer, id, amount) {
  const factory = new ethers.Contract(contractAddress, CrowdGaming.abi, signer);
  return factory.pledgeTo(id, {value: amount});

Notice that to send ETH like msg.value, we need to write the amount separately like this {value: amount}. You can also add additional parameters like gasPrice and gasLimit in the same way (they are optional though):

  return factory.pledgeTo(id, {
    value: amount,
    gasPrice: ...,
    gasLimit: ...,
  • 1
    That worked and makes sense! Thank you!
    – OhItsPM
    Mar 20, 2023 at 14:37

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