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I was reading this: https://ethereum.org/en/developers/docs/scaling/#off-chain-scaling

my doubt is: are there any other off-chain scaling solutions then layer-2. Can a centralised, non-blockchain database which send and save data to blockchain can be called off-chain-scaling solution.

e.g. if a bank save 1000 transactions in mongoDB per day, and those 1000 transactions are bached together and sended to blockchain, does this will be considered as off-chain scaling solution ?

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I would say the actual definition of a "layer 2" varies a bit. Some sources say it should be a real blockchain which utilizes layer 1 for security. I think it's generally agreed that it doesn't have to be a blockchain per se, but it's enough to be a network which utilizes layer 1 security in a way with which layer 1 guarantees the security of the layer 2 transactions. But others may disagree on this definition.

Anyway. An off-chain solution is a bit broader term. It doesn't restrict the construct that much, so the network doesn't have to be a blockchain - or maybe it doesn't even need to be a network. I doubt there is any very clear definition of "off-chain scaling solution", so I would just go with what it says: any solution which scales L1 off-chain.

Probably any off-chain scaling solution should utilize the L1 for some sort of security. But it could be even a database. So your idea about a mongoDB could be considered as an off-chain scaling solution.

Just as a note: something being an off-chain scaling solution implies nothing about the security, scaling or performance of the solution. It just means that the solution aims to scale (some) L1 off-chain in some fashion - maybe even unsuccessfully.

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