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Ethereum uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm to ensure the integrity and security of its blockchain. Can someone explain in detail how this algorithm works and how it helps to maintain the network's integrity? What are the challenges of implementing a proof-of-stake system and how does Ethereum address these challenges?

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When you're talking about intergrity I suppose you're referring to the safety property? In blockchains, the safety property ensures that there cannot exist two concurrent finalized block.

Ethereum's consensus algorithm is quite convoluted, so rather than give you the entire explanation, I will give you some pointers on what to look for to understand it.

You'll need to know:

  • what is a fork choice rule.
  • what are BFT (Byzantine Faul Tolerant) consensus. How is it related to the finality gadget.
  • In the attestations made validators what are the FFG vote and GHOST vote used for, respectively.

Here are some links that can help you get started:

Once you've unpacked all this information, you can probably get a thorough understanding of the protocol with the help of a scientific paper called Ethereum Proof-of-Stake under Scrutiny.

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    this is true. I have adjusted the question. Thank you Dec 22, 2022 at 14:35

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