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Most of the documentation I found online (Ethereum GitHub, specs., forums) contains either conflicting or vague information regarding voting.

Every committee member votes (broadcasts attestation to its committee's channel) regarding target, head and source. These votes get aggregated and sent to the main channel with all other attestation.

My question is, how many votes are necessary for a certain block the be confirmed for a given slot? How many votes/attestation does block proposer need to receive to be able to put that block in a slot. Or is the proposer able to put block in a slot regardless of votes for that slot and the only time when it is actually checked if certain block should belong to a slot is by the 2/3 supermajority vote before the whole epoch gets justified? - What if it does not get justified in that case - all blocks and transactions go back to mempool?

2 Answers 2

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  1. The number of votes necessary for a certain block the be confirmed for a given slot depends on the number of attesting validators in a given committee for the slot.

  2. The number of votes/attestation each block proposer needs to receive to be able to put that block in a slot also depends on the number of attesting validators in a given committee for the slot.

  3. The validator has to propose a block when that validator has been randomly chosen to do so. If the chosen validator fails or is unsuccessful, the block is said to be missed.

  4. If an epoch doesn't get justified three times in a row, there will be finality issues. In this case, inactive validators will be kicked out of the network, or malicious validators who are voting against the majority will have their staked ETH bleed away, allowing the majority to regain two-thirds majority and finalize the chain.

See: https://ethereum.org/en/developers/docs/consensus-mechanisms/pos/

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    Thank you for your answer, but it is still very basic interpretation. Do you have a formula how we establish how many votes are enough for 1 and 2. The rest wasn't what I had in mind.
    – Boki XD
    Commented Oct 17, 2022 at 18:16
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Question: how many votes are necessary for a certain block the be confirmed for a given slot?

What is a confirmed block? I assume you mean to say that a confirmed block is a block belonging to the canonical chain. In that case, there is no minimum of votes required. The fork choice rule determines what is the canonical chain. Although it is using votes when there are conflicting blocks, a block attested by no one can belong to the canonical chain

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