Why is it still required to sync geth after the merge? The beacon chain is now the real Eth chain, and all that's needed should be a snapshot of the network state at the time of the merge?

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The Ethereum state is derived from both the consensus layer (beacon chain) and the execution layer.

From Which client holds the state of the chain? No single client holds the state of the chain.

For example, consensus layer rewards accrue in the validator's balance on the beacon chain, while transaction tips accrue in the fee recipient address on the execution layer.

Additional information that might help: Are transactions duplicated in both beacon chain and execution layer?

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