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I learned that PoS comes with penalties and slashing.

But how common are these actions? Do most validators keep their entire 32 ether stake over time?

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It is very uncommon for a validator's balance to go under 32 ETH with the Ethereum beacon chain and PoS.

You can check on the beaconcha.in website. If you exclude validators that have not completed their deposit, there are currently only 203 validators out of 421454 actived validators (0.048%) that have a balance this is under 32 ETH. Almost all of the validators (99.952%) manage to keep their 32 ETH and increase their balance with rewards.

Only a misconfigured setup or someone running the same validator in 2 different processes or machines at the same time can cause penalties. A misconfigured setup can be easily detected by checking if your validator is performing its duties regularly on an explorer like beaconcha.in. From there you can fix your setup and recover any penalties quickly.

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Yes. In most PoS chains, validators behave honestly, because otherwise, they can lose money.

There will be many rules for PoS that could cause penalties and slashing to validators, but like miners of PoW, the validators will be better off if they act honestly. So these actions may not be that common.

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