According to my understanding votes are part of attestations.
If you go to any beacon chain explorer you can see that, the no. of attestations is 128, irrespective of the no. of votes.
This is because the no. of attestations are currently limited to 128/block.
So now what are votes then, votes is a more general term. The attestations includes votes inside it's structure. Votes are there for two types
- for LMD-Ghost
- for Casper FFG
You can read more about it here : https://eth2book.info/capella/part2/consensus/lmd_ghost/#votes-in-lmd-ghost
validators vote on which block should be added to the chain next. This is done through a mechanism called the LMD GHOST (Latest Message Driven, Greediest Heaviest Observed Sub-Tree) rule.
Attestations are a specific type of vote that validators make to confirm the validity of a block. They are a critical part of the consensus mechanism in Ethereum 2.0. On the other hand, votes are a more general term that can refer to different types of decisions made by validators, such as which block to add to the chain next.
Also the link you have attached is not working