I am wondering whether there are two independent layers. One that defines who can access and validate the blockchain and one who defines who can access the DApp. Is it e. g. possible to build an open access DApp that can be used by anyone in the world without KYC on a permissioned or private Blockchain.

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It's possible, but it would be like building a Facebook app. Users (and developers) would ultimately have dependence on Facebook, rather than the open Internet.

As you know, the D in DApp is for decentralized. Decentralized is basically the opposite of permissioned/private.

What can go together is decentralized and KYC. Identity and reputation systems can be built and incorporated into DApps (for use cases like KYC). The value proposition of such DApps is that no one would be able to change the DApp to discriminate against some users. For example, a lending DApp can ensure that everyone with the same reputation/credit score gets the same interest rate. (The reputation/credit scores themselves being decentralized, means that everyone is subject to the same rules, without discrimination or favoritism.)

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