I am looking for real-world applications using Ethereum Smart Contracts that include complex off-chain business logic. I could find several useful examples of DApps, however, the off-chain layer often consists of a simple user interface.

I need some real examples where the off-chain layer has other functionalities than simply rendering the results of the transactions or storing data.

Please add any resource that you think would be useful. Many thanks!

  • There is no difference between a "classic" program logic and what you call "off-chain layer". Just develop the logic you need. Commented May 31, 2022 at 11:42
  • @Itération122442 Thank you, I'm aware that there is no real difference between a classic program and the "off-chain" logic. Do you have any real example of such applications? I don't need to develop it, I just need some examples for testing purposes
    – ursa-ring
    Commented Jun 2, 2022 at 14:01

2 Answers 2


Some examples:

Synthetix is a synthetic asset marketplace that is using off-chain data like forex currency exchange rates.

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Crabada is a video game with NFTs. It has now moved to its own Avalanche subnet due to high transaction volume.

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As Mikko has stated there are Oracles off-chain that smart contracts fetch data from like Currency exchanges, and other real-time data to perform certain executions. These would come under the off-chain layer.

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