The Ethereum virtual machine has a large number of operation codes and base level instruction sets. Is a complete listing available?


4 Answers 4


All of the opcodes and their complete descriptions are available in the Ethereum Yellow paper. For convenience, though, I've made a handy reference list of them all:

0s: Stop and Arithmetic Operations

0x00    STOP        Halts execution
0x01    ADD         Addition operation
0x02    MUL         Multiplication operation
0x03    SUB         Subtraction operation
0x04    DIV         Integer division operation
0x05    SDIV        Signed integer
0x06    MOD         Modulo
0x07    SMOD        Signed modulo
0x08    ADDMOD      Modulo
0x09    MULMOD      Modulo
0x0a    EXP         Exponential operation
0x0b    SIGNEXTEND  Extend length of two's complement signed integer

10s: Comparison & Bitwise Logic Operations

0x10    LT      Lesser-than comparison
0x11    GT      Greater-than comparison
0x12    SLT     Signed less-than comparison
0x13    SGT     Signed greater-than comparison
0x14    EQ      Equality  comparison
0x15    ISZERO  Simple not operator
0x16    AND     Bitwise AND operation
0x17    OR      Bitwise OR operation
0x18    XOR     Bitwise XOR operation
0x19    NOT     Bitwise NOT operation
0x1a    BYTE    Retrieve single byte from word

20s: SHA3

0x20    SHA3    Compute Keccak-256 hash

30s: Environmental Information

0x30    ADDRESS         Get address of currently executing account
0x31    BALANCE         Get balance of the given account
0x32    ORIGIN          Get execution origination address
0x33    CALLER          Get caller address. This is the address of the account that is directly responsible for this execution
0x34    CALLVALUE       Get deposited value by the instruction/transaction responsible for this execution
0x35    CALLDATALOAD    Get input data of current environment
0x36    CALLDATASIZE    Get size of input data in current environment
0x37    CALLDATACOPY    Copy input data in current environment to memory This pertains to the input data passed with the message call instruction or transaction
0x38    CODESIZE        Get size of code running in current environment
0x39    CODECOPY        Copy code running in current environment to memory
0x3a    GASPRICE        Get price of gas in current environment
0x3b    EXTCODESIZE     Get size of an account's code
0x3c    EXTCODECOPY     Copy an account's code to memory

40s: Block Information

0x40    BLOCKHASH   Get the hash of one of the 256 most recent complete blocks
0x41    COINBASE    Get the block's beneficiary address
0x42    TIMESTAMP   Get the block's timestamp
0x43    NUMBER      Get the block's number
0x44    DIFFICULTY  Get the block's difficulty
0x45    GASLIMIT    Get the block's gas limit

50s Stack, Memory, Storage and Flow Operations

0x50    POP         Remove item from stack
0x51    MLOAD       Load word from memory
0x52    MSTORE      Save word to memory
0x53    MSTORE8     Save byte to memory
0x54    SLOAD       Load word from storage
0x55    SSTORE      Save word to storage
0x56    JUMP        Alter the program counter
0x57    JUMPI       Conditionally alter the program counter
0x58    PC          Get the value of the program counter prior to the increment
0x59    MSIZE       Get the size of active memory in bytes
0x5a    GAS         Get the amount of available gas, including the corresponding reduction
0x5b    JUMPDEST    Mark a valid destination for jumps

60s & 70s: Push Operations

0x60    PUSH1   Place 1 byte item on stack
0x61    PUSH2   Place 2-byte item on stack
0x7f    PUSH32  Place 32-byte (full word) item on stack

80s: Duplication Operations

0x80    DUP1    Duplicate 1st stack item
0x81    DUP2    Duplicate 2nd stack item
0x8f    DUP16   Duplicate 16th stack item

90s: Exchange Operations

0x90    SWAP1   Exchange 1st and 2nd stack items
0x91    SWAP2   Exchange 1st and 3rd stack items
…   …
0x9f    SWAP16  Exchange 1st and 17th stack items

a0s: Logging Operations

0xa0    LOG0    Append log record with no topics
0xa1    LOG1    Append log record with one topic
…   …
0xa4    LOG4    Append log record with four topics

f0s: System operations

0xf0    CREATE          Create a new account with associated code
0xf1    CALL            Message-call into an account
0xf2    CALLCODE        Message-call into this account with alternative account's code
0xf3    RETURN          Halt execution returning output data
0xf4    DELEGATECALL    Message-call into this account with an alternative account's code, but persisting the current values for `sender` and `value`
0xf5    CREATE2         Create a child contract with a deterministic address

Halt Execution, Mark for deletion

0xff    SELFDESTRUCT    Halt execution and register account for later deletion
  • 1
    Shouldn't there be some more pseudocontracts in this list? i.e. for SHA256, RIPEMD160, ECrecover, etc. I know they're not opcodes, but they're pretty closely related. Commented Jan 21, 2016 at 0:47
  • 1
    pseudocontracts are a "gray" area for inclusion in this list... Question about them here ethereum.stackexchange.com/q/440/42
    – eth
    Commented Jan 31, 2016 at 23:59
  • 3
    For those wondering there are 12+11+1+13+6+12+32+16+5+5+1 = 114 opcodes. Then there's the 4 precompiled contracts, for a total of 118.
    – Randomblue
    Commented Apr 12, 2017 at 8:48
  • 1
    I was expecting to see one or more opcodes relating to sending ether from the contract's account. Are there no such opcodes? If not, how is sending ether accomplished? Commented Jul 23, 2017 at 7:05
  • I am new to low level things, where i can use this opcodes ? please provide some links thanks Commented Aug 22, 2017 at 10:58

1) Ethan's answer references the official list of opcodes in the Yellow Paper (YP). It can be a bit dry and difficult to navigate to the newcomer. My favorite list is this one: https://github.com/djrtwo/evm-opcode-gas-costs. It's easy to navigate, and it also contains opcodes gas information as well.

2) Some opcodes may be missing from the official YP list. An example that comes to mind is REVERT (0xFD). I believe this opcode was introduced with Metropolis phase 1 (Byzantium), and it is still not mentioned in the YP. For that, your best reference will be an actual client implementation, or Solidity's implementation. Example: https://github.com/ethereum/solidity/blob/develop/libevmasm/Instruction.h (and .c as well). Be careful with clients' implementations though, they may contain opcodes that are still experimental.


Here is a more recent link to a repo. The list is usually updated after a new upgrade/fork on the network:



evm codes helps a lot! It shows the gas costs of each opcode, how it affects the stack, and has a very cool playground where you can test in solidity, yul, bytecode or mnemonics (opcodes) and see the change in stack, memory, storage and return variables in details

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.