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I will try to clarify my question.

As far as I understood, the proof of stake relies on the fact that it would make no sense to try to steal/forge transactions because you would lose your staked money.

However, what if the transaction you are verifying is transferring far more than you had staked? For example, I had staked 50ETH, but am asked to confirm a transaction containing 1000ETH. What is the incentive to not mess/steal those 1000ETH, if I only ever stand to lose those 50ETH I staked?

I just need a layman explanation, not detailed math.

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This is a really good question and the answer is the following:

You can not forge a transaction.

This is impossible thanks to cryptography. The whole reason why we call cryptocurrency crypto-currency is because of that. Without getting in the details, cryptography allows agent to sign messages (or transaction) proving their identity without revealing their private key. This render the action of changing transaction impossible because you would loose the signature linked to it.

Nonetheless there are other problems linked to proof of stake that cannot be resolved without penalties (at least no one has found better at the moment).

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