I'm a complete beginner and I'm trying to deploy the 3_Ballot.sol contract which is a sample contract on Remix. It compiles perfectly fine but it gives this error when I try to deploy it:

creation of Ballot errored: Error encoding arguments: Error: expected array value (argument=null value="" code=INVALID_ARGUMENT version=abi/5.5.0)

There are lots of similar threads with the same error but I couldn't find which part I'm supposed to change in the code. Here's the sample ballot code I'm trying to deploy:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0

pragma solidity >=0.7.0 <0.9.0;

 * @title Ballot
 * @dev Implements voting process along with vote delegation
contract Ballot {
    struct Voter {
        uint weight; // weight is accumulated by delegation
        bool voted;  // if true, that person already voted
        address delegate; // person delegated to
        uint vote;   // index of the voted proposal

    struct Proposal {
        // If you can limit the length to a certain number of bytes, 
        // always use one of bytes1 to bytes32 because they are much cheaper
        bytes32 name;   // short name (up to 32 bytes)
        uint voteCount; // number of accumulated votes

    address public chairperson;

    mapping(address => Voter) public voters;

    Proposal[] public proposals;

     * @dev Create a new ballot to choose one of 'proposalNames'.
     * @param proposalNames names of proposals
    constructor(bytes32[] memory proposalNames) {
        chairperson = msg.sender;
        voters[chairperson].weight = 1;

        for (uint i = 0; i < proposalNames.length; i++) {
            // 'Proposal({...})' creates a temporary
            // Proposal object and 'proposals.push(...)'
            // appends it to the end of 'proposals'.
                name: proposalNames[i],
                voteCount: 0
     * @dev Give 'voter' the right to vote on this ballot. May only be called by 'chairperson'.
     * @param voter address of voter
    function giveRightToVote(address voter) public {
            msg.sender == chairperson,
            "Only chairperson can give right to vote."
            "The voter already voted."
        require(voters[voter].weight == 0);
        voters[voter].weight = 1;

     * @dev Delegate your vote to the voter 'to'.
     * @param to address to which vote is delegated
    function delegate(address to) public {
        Voter storage sender = voters[msg.sender];
        require(!sender.voted, "You already voted.");
        require(to != msg.sender, "Self-delegation is disallowed.");

        while (voters[to].delegate != address(0)) {
            to = voters[to].delegate;

            // We found a loop in the delegation, not allowed.
            require(to != msg.sender, "Found loop in delegation.");
        sender.voted = true;
        sender.delegate = to;
        Voter storage delegate_ = voters[to];
        if (delegate_.voted) {
            // If the delegate already voted,
            // directly add to the number of votes
            proposals[delegate_.vote].voteCount += sender.weight;
        } else {
            // If the delegate did not vote yet,
            // add to her weight.
            delegate_.weight += sender.weight;

     * @dev Give your vote (including votes delegated to you) to proposal 'proposals[proposal].name'.
     * @param proposal index of proposal in the proposals array
    function vote(uint proposal) public {
        Voter storage sender = voters[msg.sender];
        require(sender.weight != 0, "Has no right to vote");
        require(!sender.voted, "Already voted.");
        sender.voted = true;
        sender.vote = proposal;

        // If 'proposal' is out of the range of the array,
        // this will throw automatically and revert all
        // changes.
        proposals[proposal].voteCount += sender.weight;

     * @dev Computes the winning proposal taking all previous votes into account.
     * @return winningProposal_ index of winning proposal in the proposals array
    function winningProposal() public view
            returns (uint winningProposal_)
        uint winningVoteCount = 0;
        for (uint p = 0; p < proposals.length; p++) {
            if (proposals[p].voteCount > winningVoteCount) {
                winningVoteCount = proposals[p].voteCount;
                winningProposal_ = p;

     * @dev Calls winningProposal() function to get the index of the winner contained in the proposals array and then
     * @return winnerName_ the name of the winner
    function winnerName() public view
            returns (bytes32 winnerName_)
        winnerName_ = proposals[winningProposal()].name;

2 Answers 2


From the error message, it seems you are not providing any arguments to the constructor which expects a byte32 array "proposalNames".

Try giving the following sample arguments to the constructor and it should work.


enter image description here

  • It worked, thank you very much! I also tried to slightly change the sample arguments you've provided and it also worked. So I was wondering, is it simply a necessity to always provide a random argument before deploying whenever an argument had not already been initially provided in our code? This would also be super helpful for me to learn, as it looks like a very simple trick that I somehow should've known but I don't :) Thanks again!
    – ZKT
    Commented Dec 27, 2021 at 19:52
  • Yeah the constructor is a function that automatically executes at the time of deployment. In most cases it's responsible for initializing attributes inside the contract. In this case it initializes the attribute "proposalNames". The example that I gave you adds 2 names "foo" and "bar" to proposalNames. Since the constructor expects a byte32 array, you have to convert the string "foo" and "bar" to byte32. Refer this thread on how to do a conversion from string to byte32 - ethereum.stackexchange.com/questions/89533/…
    – renj1thr
    Commented Jan 2, 2022 at 11:30

For who has mssql at hand this was useful for me:

select cast('foo' as binary(32))



Use like this:


  • As it’s currently written, your answer is unclear. Please edit to add additional details that will help others understand how this addresses the question asked. You can find more information on how to write good answers in the help center.
    – Community Bot
    Commented Mar 10, 2022 at 5:33

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.