I'm implementing a cryptocurrency to learn, I've already gotten a proof of work based chain running and functional and am now trying to move it over to proof of stake. I can only seem to find very high-level descriptions of how the planned proof of stake system for Ethereum works. A few immediate questions:

  1. How are the votes actually implemented? Does each validator simply sign the block with his/her public key?
  2. What happens if one of the stakers does not vote within the timeframe needed for minting the block? -- this seems quite probable given that the validators are chosen at random from the network... or is their some incentive not to do this (e.g losing your stake)

1 Answer 1


I also have become recently interested in learning how these things operate in detail, and was a bit hit by the apparent lack of precise information. These helped me, and maybe they can help you as well:

And of course, don't forget the software specs.

Regarding your concrete question (2), my understanding is that validators will be penalized for not being online when they are supposed to, but they lose money at the same rate they would earn it during the period they are offline, meaning that as long as they are online at least 50% of the time the validators will notice positive gains.

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