i am honestly a little bit confused which technological changes we will see in ETH 2.0, pls guide me to an up to date technological explainer.

is it true, that ETH 2.0 basically uses these 3 main technologies?

  1. Randao: Choice of validatos
  2. LMD GHOST: Block-consensus
  3. Casper FFG: Epoch consensus

is there some nice graphical overview of all the "pieces" eth 2.0 will get? Cheers

1 Answer 1


Yes, you could say those bullet points are the main things to understand to understand Ethereum 2.0.

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This image is from the Justin Drake's presentation on Ethereum 2.0 randomness. I invite you to listen to it for a better understanding of this slide. (The number of slots per epoch is outdated but everything else is still valid)

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This figure is from the Gasper scientific paper explaining the Beacon Chain. It represents how LMD GHOST (which is the fork choice rule) works. To quickly explain it, every validator attest of which blocks is the last one it sees, and by doing so vote for the chain leading to this block. From there, LMD GHOST can attribute a number to each block and determine the canonical chain.

  1. enter image description here

Casper FFG is the "finality gadget", we use it to finalize blocks on the chain. I haven't found an easy approach to this part with good graphics yet (I made this graphic myself). I'll add it here if do.

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